Tag Archives: Growth Enablement

Self-Leadership and ‘The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People’

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Content

  • Self-leadership process and the ‘Seven Habits of Highly Effective People’
  • Emotional self-leadership and authenticity
  • Educational, physical, health, stress, and coping benefits of self-leadership
  • Self-leadership competences in leadership development, recruitment, and work performance

Self-leadership process and the ‘Seven Habits of Highly Effective People’

Modern leadership at increasingly challenging workplaces tends to move away from the mere function of supervising employees but aims to empower the workforce to improve organizational effectiveness, e.g., managers being able to rely on their people [1]. “Self-leadership is the process through which individuals target their cognitions and actions toward desired outcomes” [2]. Desired outcomes may be intrinsically motivated [3], or externally influenced, i.e., being learned as, for example, when being asked to set performance goals in an organizational setting [4]. Such task motivation, as well as cognitive thought strategies like visualization, positive affirmations and the examination of personal beliefs, are positively related to career development [5]. These strategies are also supporting a charismatic leadership style [6]. Dr. Stephen R. Covey’s ‘The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People’ profile can be used to measure self-leadership competency and includes the following seven habits [7], p. 1424:

  1. Be Proactive (take responsibility for your own behavior),
  2. Begin with the End in Mind (have a clear vision of what to achieve and accomplish),
  3. Put First Things First (focus heavily on highly important but not necessarily urgent activities),
  4. Think Win-Win (look for synergistic solutions to problems),
  5. Seek First to Under- stand (listen with the intent to fully understand the other person, both emotionally and intellectually),
  6. Synergize (believe the whole is greater than the sum of its parts), and
  7. Sharpen the Saw (seek continuous improvement).

Emotional self-leadership and authenticity

Cognitive and behavioral processes also involve emotional responses as evidenced by neuroscience [2]. Emotion regulation is part of emotional intelligence [8] and together with self-leadership could be conceptualized as emotional self-leadership [9]. When situations cause a person to hide or express feelings differently than the actual emotions, compromised authenticity comes with negative consequences for an individual’s well-being. Inauthenticity may also affect the interaction with others and therefore impact relational effectiveness, be it in private or at the workplace [9].

Educational, physical, health, stress, and coping benefits of self-leadership

Self-leadership can, as a related training program with soldiers showed, significantly improve educational and physical achievements. Further benefits are higher levels of self-efficacy and reduced stress [10]. Healthy self-regulation in high-stress environments as studied in academia can potentially be even increased when combining self-leadership with mindfulness training [11]. For example, cancer patients with self-leadership skills were found to cope better with their disease [7].

Self-leadership competences in leadership development, recruitment, and work performance

Some researchers suggest that self-leadership may help women leaders reflect on themselves to improve their leadership of others [5]. Similarly, the concept seems to be promising for leadership development and recruitment in general [12]. By supporting unsatisfied employees (e.g., contractors concerned about their status of employment) in their self-leadership, perceptions of the workplace can be improved [1]. Extended to the team and societal context, self-leadership is helping team development and performance that will stimulate socio-economic growth [13]. Despite all these general promises, in an organizational workplace context, the following differentiation has to be made. Behavioral strategies such as goal setting are indeed effective strategies, but self-navigation by natural motivation and constructive thought patterns did not positively influence performance in organizational work environments [14].

References

[1] Jooste, K., & Le Roux, L. Z. (2014). The practice of self-leadership in personal and professional development of contract nursing staff in the environment of a higher education institution. African Journal For Physical, Health Education, Recreation & Dance, 275-285.

[2] Yefei, W., Guangrong, X., & Xilong, C. (2016). Effects of emitional intelligence and self-leadership on sstudents’ coping with stress. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal, 44(5), 853-864.

[3] Ho, J., Nesbit, P. L., Jepsen, D., & Demirian, S. (2012). Extending self-leadership research to the East: Measurement equivalence of the Chinese and English versions of the MSLQ. Asian Journal Of Social Psychology, 15(2), 101-111. doi:10.1111/j.1467-839X.2011.01366.x

[4] Catarina, G., Luís, C., António, C., & Pedro Marques, Q. (2015). Better off together: A cluster analysis of self-leadership and its relationship to individual innovation in hospital nurses / “É melhor em conjunto”: Uma análise de clusters à auto-liderança e a sua relação com a inovação individual em enfermeiros hospitalares. Psicologia, (1), 45.

[5] Dizaho, E. K., Salleh, R., & Abdullah, A. (2017). Ascertaining the Influence of Task Motivation and Constructive Cognition of Self-leadership on Career Development of Women Leaders. Global Business & Management Research, 9439-454.

[6] Anyi, C., I; Heng, C., Amber Yun; Ping, L., Hsien Chun, C., & Yingtzu, L. (2011). Charismatic leadership and self-leadership : A relationship of substitution or supplementation in the contexts of internalization and identification?. Journal Of Organizational Change Management, (3), 299. doi:10.1108/09534811111132703

[7] Yun, Y. H., Sim, J. A., Jung, J. Y., Noh, D., Lee, E. S., Kim, Y. W., & … Lee, S. N. (2014). The association of self-leadership, health behaviors, and posttraumatic growth with health-related quality of life in patients with cancer. Psycho-Oncology, 23(12), 1423-1430. doi:10.1002/pon.3582

[8] Furtner, M. R., Rauthmann, J. F., & Sachse, P. (2010). The Socioemotionally Iintelligent Self-Leader: Examining Relations Between Self-Leadership and Socioemotional Intelligence. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal, 38(9), 1191-1196. doi:10.2224/sbp.2010.38.9.1191

[9] Manz, C. C., Houghton, J. D., Neck, C. P., Fugate, M., & Pearce, C. (2016). Whistle While You Work. Journal Of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 23(4), 374-386. doi:10.1177/1548051816655993

[10] Lucke, G. A., & Furtner, M. R. (2015). Soldiers Lead Themselves to More Success: A Self-Leadership Intervention Study. Military Psychology, 27(5), 311-324.

[11] Sampl, J., Maran, T., & Furtner, M. R. (2017). A Randomized Controlled Pilot Intervention Study of a Mindfulness-Based Self-Leadership Training (MBSLT) on Stress and Performance. Mindfulness, 8(5), 1393-1407.

[12] Ross, S. (2014). A conceptual model for understanding the process of self-leadership development and action-steps to promote personal leadership development. Journal Of Management Development, (4), 299. doi:10.1108/JMD-11-2012-0147

[13] Kristina, H., & Udo, K. (2012). Self-leadership and team members’ work role performance. Journal Of Managerial Psychology, (5), 497. doi:10.1108/02683941211235409

[14] Curral, L., & Marques-Quinteiro, P. (2009). Self-leadership and Work Role Innovation: Testing a Mediation Model with Goal Orientation and Work Motivation. Revista De Psicologia Del Trabajo Y De Las Organizaciones, 25(2), 165-176.

Toot, no tweet anymore! Mastodon: The co-operatively run Twitter alternative

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Social networking, back in your hands

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How awesome is that!

For more information, check: https://joinmastodon.org/

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Find your perfect community

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Take control of your content

With powerful tools to control who sees your posts and a 500-character limit, Mastodon empowers you to share your ideas, unabridged. The best part? All posts are in chronological order, not “optimized” to push ads into your timeline. With apps for iOS, Android, and every other platform imaginable, Mastodon is always at your fingertips.

Putting the user first

You’re a person, not a product. Mastodon is a free, open-source development that has been crowdfunded, not financed. All instances are independently owned, operated, and moderated. There is no monopoly by a single commercial company, no ads, and no tracking. Mastodon works for you, and not the other way around.

Feel safe in your community

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Additional features

  • Robust anti-abuse tools
  • Flexible post filtering
  • A huge audience
  • Easily deploy your own
  • They’re called toots
  • Embed media in your posts
  • Built on open web standards
  • Spoiler warnings
  • You decide what’s relevant

 

Metacognitive Strategies for Learning (LD) vs. Intellectual Disabilities (ID)

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Summary. This article describes some metacognitive strategies to learner profiles and then evaluates those strategies for individuals of different ages with intellectual and learning disabilities. In order to do so, different variables that effect those with intellectual and learning disabilities are identified. Social and cultural implications, as well as life span stages and interpersonal communication are discussed.

Continue reading Metacognitive Strategies for Learning (LD) vs. Intellectual Disabilities (ID)

Satodigi(tal): The Vision of Co-operative Platform-Enabled Sustainable (Digital) Production Landscape Management

Draft formulation of a Japan-specific vision from a Platform Cooperativism Japan (PCJ) perspective.

PCJ legend

PCJ strategy

Learned Helplessness (LH) and the Need to Promote Hope

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Learned helplessness and some psychological disorders

Dogs who experienced repeatedly unavoidable electro shocks learned that they have no control over escaping from such painful events [1], and henceforth developed a cognitive deficit in the form of generalizing the helplessness expectation to other situations [2]. This phenomenon is also considered reduced incentive motivation [3]. Mental patterns of learned helplessness (LH) resemble those of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which associate with depression [4]. LH is mentioned as the animal correspondent of depression [5]. Indeed, LH was found to be a primary cause of both PTSD and major depressive disorder (MDD) [6]. Depression includes the symptoms of feeling helplessness, but it is not its (sole) source. Non-depressed people can learn helplessness as well. Interestingly, ‘normal’ people may over-optimistically assess their level of control and therefore less likely notice uncontrollability as more realistically reasoning individuals with depressive tendencies do [7].

Example

For what could appear as inappropriate passivity in refugees who are not seeking help and not filing timely registration from the new government, for example, can be explained by LH theory. Survivors of traumatic persecution have learned that they cannot expect help from their violent or passive government, an uncontrollable fact that caused the learning of helplessness that now is applied to the new country’s government as well [6]. LH is characterized by attributions that are more personalized, constant, and of global nature and is directly associated with more severe PTSD and MDD symptoms. The relative importance of a situation to a person’s identity is further mediating this relationship [8]. This way, LH explains why a persecuted refugee may not display the knowledge of pro-actively managing the required legal administration even in a new context that would, in contrast to the former learned one, offering help to do so [6].

Related theories and hope

Towards the end of the last century, the finding that hopelessness can lead to depression caused researchers like Seligman to re-focus from helplessness to hopelessness and finally to a hope-promoting view that was intended to prevent helplessness and related pathologies of hopelessness depression [2]. For individuals who assume a performance-oriented motivation, prompts of hope and self-esteem are important to let them believe in their ability and become actively engaged, e.g., in learning and other challenging tasks. In contrast, according to goal achievement theory, subjects with a mastery-(learning-)orientation behave actively regardless of their degree of self-confidence. [9]. Models of regulation posit that learners self-regulate (i.e., manage, monitor, and motivate) their resources either towards process or achievement goals [10]. However pronounced and efficient these strategies may be though; the effects of hope finally beat any deficits in self-regulation [9].

Social-cognitive approach

A more positive outlook on relationships reduced the detrimental correlation between PTSD and dysfunctional goal orientation such as performance-avoidance. While mastery development is achieved through social comparison, performance-avoiding students see peer comparison as a threat. Therefore, motivation to get help and to learn can be increased by the adoption of a social-cognitive framework that is supportive of a positive relational outlook fostering help-seeking experiences [11].

Photo credit: Pexels (pixabay.com)

References
[1] Seligman, M. E., & Weiss, J. M. (1980). Coping behavior: Learned helplessness, physiological change and learned inactivity. Behaviour Research And Therapy, 18(5), 459-512. doi:10.1016/0005-7967(80)90011-X
[2] Nunn, K. P., & Thompson, S. L. (1996). The pervasive refusal syndrome: Learned helplessness and hopelessness. Clinical Child Psychology And Psychiatry, 1(1), 121-132. doi:10.1177/1359104596011011
[3] Maier, S. F., & Seligman, M. E. (1976). Learned helplessness: Theory and evidence. Journal Of Experimental Psychology: General, 105(1), 3-46. doi:10.1037/0096-3445.105.1.3
[4] Bargai, N. )., Shalev, A. )., & Ben-Shakhar, G. ). (2007). Posttraumatic stress disorder and depression in battered women: The mediating role of learned helplessness. Journal Of Family Violence, 22(5), 267-275. doi:10.1007/s10896-007-9078-y
[5] Greenwood, B. N., & Fleshner, M. (2008). Exercise, learned helplessness, and the stress-resistant brain. Neuromolecular Medicine, 10(2), 81-98. doi:10.1007/s12017-008-8029-y
[6] White, B. R. (2016). Using Learned Helplessness to Understand the Effects of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder on Refugees and Explain Why These Disorders Should Qualify as Extraordinary Circumstances Excusing Untimely Asylum Applications. Buffalo Law Review, 64(2), 413-463.
[7] Schwartz, B. (1981). Does helplessness cause depression, or do only depressed people become helpless? Comment on Alloy and Abramson. Journal Of Experimental Psychology: General, 110(3), 429-435. doi:10.1037/0096-3445.110.3.429
[8] Reiland, S. A. (2017). Event Centrality as Mediator Between Attributions and Mental Health Outcomes. Journal Of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 26(6), 574-589. doi:10.1080/10926771.2017.1308981
[9] Sideridis, G. )., & Kaplan, A. ). (2011). Achievement goals and persistence across tasks: The roles of failure and success. Journal Of Experimental Education, 79(4), 429-451. doi:10.1080/00220973.2010.539634
[10] Rezaee, R., & Mosalanejad, L. (2015). The effects of case-based team learning on students’ learning, self regulation and self direction. Global Journal Of Health Science, 7(4), 295-306. doi:10.5539/gjhs.v7n4p295
[11] Ness, B. M., Middleton, M. J., & Hildebrandt, M. J. (2015). Examining the Effects of Self-reported Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Positive Relations With Others on Self-regulated Learning for Student Service Members/Veterans. Journal Of American College Health, 63(7), 448-458.

Learning from differences and collaborating in diversity according to Lev Vygotsky

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Content. (1) Individual embodiment of increasingly global social contexts, (2) Globally influenced mediation of learning, (3) Extension of the proximate to a collaborative zone of development, (4) Integrating differences for rich and demanding learning opportunities

Continue reading Learning from differences and collaborating in diversity according to Lev Vygotsky

Scaffolding Cooperative Learning

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Human interactions don’t lack technical but rather cooperative communication skills. The good news is that pro-social behavior can be learned. Collective argumentation is one means to scaffold learners’ engagement in group work. Also, the negotiation of values is vital for achieving a shared sense of agency and accountability between teachers and students. In computer-enabled learning, consequential engagement in the form of enabling equitability and showing the benefits beyond single contributions, as well as using game formats are promising pathways to progress cooperation in learning environments.

Continue reading Scaffolding Cooperative Learning

Platform Cooperativism: Democratically Run Digital Organizations

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Learning from and For Life Transitions

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It remains a challenge to explain how individuals transition from one goal cycle to the other [1]. But this is a relevant question in lifespan development. Life course theory conceptualizes series of events respectively transitions in life [2]. While there are many terms to describe life transitions (e.g., turning points, momentous events, etc.), there seems to be agreement that transitions are about major life changes [3].

Life changes can be school transitions, life events such as parenthood, migration [4], or retirement [9]. These normative events mostly are experienced positively; there are also unexpected and involuntary events that are perceived more negatively though [3]. In other words, transitional phases potentially present opportunities and uncertainties [4]. It is difficult to disengage from prior goals and commit to new ones, as goals stand for a hoped future and consequently also support psychological well-being [5]. Cultural and societal changes can trigger change, but there is also increasing variability in developmental journeys within societies and generations as people exercise agency, i.e., taking conscious decisions to initiate and go through life course transitions, be it as an adjustment to the current social environment or not [6].

Learning helps to cope with stress from life transitions [7] while going through transitions conceptualized as experiencing disequilibrium and stability adds to psychological resilience [8]. Seen it that way, transitions naturally involve chance, choice, and change, all interlinked to trigger, enable, and result in personal development and growth.

Photo credit: LaughingRaven (pixabay.com)

References

[1] Heckhausen, J., Wrosch, C., & Schulz, R. (2010). A motivational theory of life-span development. Psychological Review, 117 (1), 32–60.

[2] Alwin, D. F. (2012). Integrating Varieties of Life Course Concepts. Journals Of Gerontology Series B-Psychological Sciences And Social Sciences, 67(2), 206-220.

[3] Svob, C., Brown, N., Reddon, J., Uzer, T., & Lee, P. (2014). The transitional impact scale: Assessing the material and psychological impact of life transitions. Behavior Research Methods, 46(2), 448-455. doi:10.3758/s13428-013-0378-2

[4] Syed, M. (2017). Identity integration across cultural transitions: Bridging individual and societal change. Journal Of Psychology In Africa, 27(2), 105-114. doi:10.1080/14330237.2017.1301675

[5] King, L. A., & Hicks, J. A. (2007). Lost and Found Possible Selves: Goals, Development, and Well-Being. New Directions For Adult And Continuing Education, (114), 27-37.

[6] Flaherty, M. G. (2013). Age and agency: Time work across the life course. Time & Society, 22(2), 237-253. doi:10.1177/0961463X12455598

[7] Carragher, L., & Golding, B. (2015). Older Men as Learners: Irish Men’s Sheds as an Intervention. Adult Education Quarterly, 65(2), 152-168. doi:10.1177/0741713615570894

[8] Henning, P. B. (2011). Disequilibrium, Development and Resilience Through Adult Life. Systems Research & Behavioral Science, 28(5), 443-454. doi:10.1002/sres.1108

[9] Merriam, S. B. (2005). How adult life transitions foster learning and development. New Directions For Adult & Continuing Education, 2005(108), 3.

Circular Causality of Global and State Self-Esteem

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The traditional self-esteem paradigm does not take into account sufficiently the idea of bottom-up causality from state self-esteem (e.g., contextual academic achievement, social status, and appearance) to trait self-esteem (i.e., global self-esteem; e.g., a relatively stable personality characteristic, such as narcissism). This is problematic as it cannot explain, and is contradicted by, many studies showing that development throughout the lifespan is influenced by state self-esteem and self-experiences.

Continue reading Circular Causality of Global and State Self-Esteem

Erroneous Scoping

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Most of us have heard about the misery existing in many parts of the globe. 3.5 billion people live at $2.5 a day. According to UNESCO, every day 22,000 children die because of poverty. Why is it so easy to forget that? Good people end up by concluding that we do our best we can, because “we have it good here,” and we must be given credit for the care we provide to our families, communities, parties, and regions. Really, is that it?

In our Western “developed” societies we enjoy global services, we read international news, and we travel to most distant places. We imagine danger lurking from other continents and from people of other races. Although popular media’s priority is not to educate us on real issues, we still get enough information between all the advertisement and distraction that gives us in minimum a clue how to complete the picture around our feeling that there may be something wrong. So why are we still ignoring or forgetting the overwhelming exploitation, destruction, and poverty in our earthly neighborhoods though?

I rarely hear overt statements trying to explain the suffering of people in poor environments with their individual laziness, stupidity, or own made weak education. So, it seems we are capable of understanding and caring, but with a rather narrow scope when it comes to admitting where help is needed most from our own side. But again, nobody would hustle to provide an already rich with even more unnecessary luxury when confronted with the decision whether to help a dying child instead, right? And yes, there were enough resources to keep all bellies sufficiently filled. The wealth of a couple of dozens of dynasties equaling the worth of around half of the world’s population indicates that it isn’t a natural law that we already lucky ones would need to starve too to feed the 1 billion children who live in severe poverty in our modern times.

I have found and tested over time a scoping model that clarifies what it means to be truly human(e) and how we can identify erroneous scoping and re-focus ourselves feasibly on the combinations of time-relational dimensions that are the ground for developing universal human clear-, fore-, and farsightedness.

The intra-past: In contrast to using history for legitimizing inter-personal (-national, etc.) conflicts, the past is where we can come to terms with ourselves, i.e., understanding your psychological and spiritual world. Take the lessons-learned, but forgive and move on.

The inter-present: ‘Living in the present’ is good advice for interdependent (vs. independent or dependent) relationships. Rather than relating to others in a transactional way as we are so much taught economically, don’t expect anything in return for your love and don’t sell your soul for what you don’t unconditionally mean.

The extra-future: If we define ourselves not just as how much we consume and amass regarding material and financial wealth but as what we intend to achieve for the next generations to come, we evolve from a liability to wise heroes. Sadly, many elderly are honored mainly for their economic status. There is never a better moment than now to sow the seeds for a healthy future for all by being guided by values of equity and sustainability.

If you scope your human being and becoming that way, you will inevitably get your view cleared up to a panoramic horizon that sets free your full human potential. Follow these ambitions and your doubts will vanish soon. We don’t need to abstain from the progress we were born in as some mean arguments of the sort of “Don’t complain about capitalism if you use it” want to impose guilt on us. However, we are only guilty at humanity if we are not constantly trying to innovate, change, and commit for a better future for all. Better conditions for even more people are possible. We might find a lot of such examples that we are enjoying right now, which our grandparents did not yet (i.e., achievements like advanced democracies, improved gender and racial equality, etc.).

What’s in for you when you engage in finding better solutions for all? What’s in for you if not material gain, especially not in the short-term? A deep satisfaction and fulfillment, motivation to get up and do important work, and compassion and love from being close to what really matters: service to humanity, including the well-being of our children and their children. The world needs every one of us! Now! Enjoy!

Integrating Eastern Philosophies, Transpersonal Theories, and Phenomenological Approaches into Developmental Lifespan Psychology

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Content:

  • Universalities and Cultural Differences.
  • Closing Holes in West-centric Researches.
  • Eastern Philosophies and Transpersonal Psychology.
  • Expanding Consciousness and Phenomenological Ways of Knowing.

Continue reading Integrating Eastern Philosophies, Transpersonal Theories, and Phenomenological Approaches into Developmental Lifespan Psychology

Approaches to Lifespan Development and Cultural Considerations

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Developmental Psychology and Lifespan Development

Developmental psychology comprises the research of children’s cognitive, societal, and emotive development, and is especially interested in studying how children learn [1]. During the last decades, lifespan developmental psychology became an “independent, interdisciplinary specialization of life sciences” [2, p. 25] that is embracing the developmental stages over a whole lifespan [3]. Lifespan development research seeks insight into the determinants of individuals’ well-being, e.g., ‘successful aging,’ while drawing on traditional developmental psychology’s components of health, cognition, and relationships [4].

The Role of Culture

The impressive achievements in human collective creation may be seen as essentially the result of social rather than mental capacities [5]. Despite the plethora of cultural psychology research, there remains critique whether culture and context can play the central role in exploring what is influencing social behavior [6]. As a counter-argument some researchers propose the womanist model to overcome the definition of the self as a mere function of culture and societal norms [7].

Social abilities of children at different development stages have been reported to be comparable [5]. Extending developmental research to life-span theories entailing adulthood and old age, as already proposed by Erikson’s identity development model from 1959 [7], causes a shift towards increased importance of culture. Developmental neurobiological processes that are more influential in early life stages give way to increased effects from culture and social learning at later life stages [2]. Regarding child development there are increasingly calls for inclusion of, for example, native cultures in research [8].

Towards Holistic Lifespan Development Psychology Approaches

Jean Piaget’s (1896 – 1994) view that meaning results from physical interaction with the environment could not hinder psychology’s tendential development of an inconsideration of brain and body in mental processes. However, the modern enactivist approach is (again) conceptualizing a close link between organism and environment [9]. Today a more holistic perspective follows earlier research that has focused either internal or exogenic elements in identity development [10]. Contemporary research emphasizes the need to better understand the complex human environment [11], to examine individual (e.g., gender-specific, but controlled for culture) within-person developmental processes in longitudinal studies [4], and to capture the more granular day-to-day events’ influence on crucial lifespan factors [12].

Interdisciplinary Globalization of Lifespan Development Research

Economically developed regions, sometimes referred to as Western countries, make up only 20 percent of the world population while developing economies’ population is even disproportionately continuing to grow. At the same time, economic development in the Non-Western, often collectivist societies are likely to influence the development of related cultures dramatically. Therefore, to understand human developmental, psychology needs to focus more on where the big changes and populations are [13].

To further integrate all relevant aspects of human development, a closer collaboration between the life course sociology and life span psychology seems to be a promising aspiration [14]. Like the emergence of culture and art marked a new era of Homo sapiens some ten thousand years ago [13], maybe breakthroughs in understanding human lifespan development related to culture may define next evolutionary steps of humanity.

 

References

[1] Thomas, J. E. (2015). Developmental Psychology. Research Starters: Education (Online Edition),

[2] Švancara, J. (2012). The emergence of life span developmental psychology – approaches, theories, models, methods, implementation. E-Psychologie, 6(1), 24-41.

[3] Tuladhar, C. T., & Commons, M. L. (2014). Correspondence between some life-span, stage theory developmental sequences of stages and levels. Behavioral Development Bulletin, 19(3), 24-27. doi:10.1037/h0100586

[4] Morack, J., Ram, N., Fauth, E. B., & Gerstorf, D. (2013). Multidomain trajectories of psychological functioning in old age: A longitudinal perspective on (uneven) successful aging. Developmental Psychology, 49(12), 2309-2324. doi:10.1037/a0032267

[5] Nielsen, M., & Haun, D. (2016). Why developmental psychology is incomplete without comparative and cross-cultural perspectives. Philosophical Transactions Of The Royal Society Of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 371(1686), 20150071. doi:10.1098/rstb.2015.0071

[6] Dedios Sanguineti, M. C. (2015). Interwoven explorations: Culture and mind (in context): Introduction to the special issue. Psychology & Society, 7(1), 1-11.

[7] Walters, K. A., & Auton-Cuff, F. P. (2009). A story to tell: the identity development of women growing up as third culture kids. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 12(7), 755-772. doi:10.1080/13674670903029153

[8] Fitzgerald, H., & Farrell, P. (2012). Fulfilling the Promise: Creating a Child Development Research Agenda With Native Communities. Child Development Perspectives, 6(1), 75-78.

[9] Marshall, P. J. (2016). Embodiment and Human Development. Child Development Perspectives, 10(4), 245. doi:10.1111/cdep.12190

[10] Robinson, O. C., & Smith, J. A. (2010). Investigating the Form and Dynamics of Crisis Episodes in Early Adulthood: The Application of a Composite Qualitative Method. Qualitative Research In Psychology, 7(2), 170-191. doi:10.1080/14780880802699084

[11] Allik, J., Massoudi, K., Realo, A., & Rossier, J. (2012). Personality and culture: Cross-cultural psychology at the next crossroads. Swiss Journal Of Psychology, 71(1), 5-12. doi:10.1024/1421-0185/a000069

[12] Hofer, S. M., & Piccinin, A. M. (2010). Toward an integrative science of life-span development and aging. The Journals Of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences And Social Sciences, 65(3), 269-278. doi:10.1093/geronb/gbq017

[13] Arnett, J. J. (2012). Human development: A cultural approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

[14] Gilleard, C., & Higgs, P. (2016). Connecting Life Span Development with the Sociology of the Life Course: A New Direction. Sociology, 50(2), 301-315. doi:10.1177/0038038515577906

The Frog in the Bottom of a Well

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I have already argued that psychology should be taught instead of history, and that kind of un-learning and de-culturation would complement the strategy to reduce shared group hatred and separation in favor of more compassionate oneness with all and everything. It was always known that traveling and cross-cultural exchanges are mind-opening and enriching experiences that are often even dramatically changing one’s world view. As Third Culture Kids (TCK) show, it takes in fact a bit more, but only little more than around three years of living between cultures during the formative years to become a world citizen in the sense of not being socially conditioned and limited to a specific culture [2]. With global communication and mobility possibilities today we could use that old wisdom to implement ‘world citizenship’ programs to educate a truly locally AND globally caring generation that helps promoting peace and well-being for anybody from far and wide.

Don’t be a frog, and enjoy the following story:-) [1]:

THE CHINESE HAVE AN EXPRESSION FOR THE LIMITED WAY ALL OF US LEARN TO SEE THE WORLD: jing di zhi wa, meaning “frog in the bottom of a well.” The expression comes from a fable about a frog that has lived its entire life in a small well. The frog assumes that its tiny world is all there is, and it has no idea of the true size of the world. It is only when a passing turtle tells the frog of the great ocean to the east that the frog realizes there is much more to the world than it had known. 

All of us are like that frog. We grow up as members of a culture and learn, through direct and indirect teaching, to see the world from the perspective that becomes most familiar to us. Because the people around us usually share that perspective, we seldom have cause to question it. Like the frog, we rarely suspect how big and diverse our human species is.

 

References:

[1] Arnett, J. J. (2012). Human development: A cultural approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

[2] Walters, K. A., & Auton-Cuff, F. P. (2009). A story to tell: the identity development of women growing up as third culture kids. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 12(7), 755-772. doi:10.1080/13674670903029153

Platform Cooperativism: Securing People’s Stakes and Shares in the Rapidly Evolving (Digital) Economy

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It’s possible now to support the Platform Cooperativism movement to help secure peoples stake and share in online platforms and the digital economy.

Be it as an educator, as an IT expert, Executive MBA, or from a psychological point of view; I’m always arriving at the same conclusion. It is now the time we have to push further the awareness and application of feasible alternative cooperative economic models, in contrast, to ruthlessly extractive capitalism that a few shareholders and investors impose on us. People actually can claim back the ‘lost land’ and almost lost virtual world (buzzword internet neutrality, democracy, and freedom) from the ‘self-coronated landlords’ and Internet tycoons who are relentlessly increasing their fees while reducing social protection of their rent payers, users, and workers. Example companies, cases, stories, and approaches to the “old” and “new” world can be found here.

One answer and I think a historically critical opportunity to contribute to a fairer future, is Platform Cooperativism, which connects key stakeholders of the emerging cooperative platform ecosystem to create synergies in the pursuit of increased shared value, ownership, and governance.Platform Cooperativism supports the cooperative digital economy through research, experimentation, education, advocacy, documentation of best practices, technical assistance, the coordination of funding, and events.

The movement is relevant for any individual and organization that is valuing sustainable online platform solutions. Cooperative values ensure that the prosperity and decision-making can be shared between value creators working together for mutual benefit and the transition to a more equitable platform economy.

What you can do:

Thank you!

Too Much and “Good” or “Bad” Emotional Intelligence / Empathy

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High levels of Emotional Intelligence (EI) are generally associated with high performance and success. However, there might also be a kind of emotional overthinking with adverse effects on work performance. And, EI is not in itself a “good” or a “bad” personality characteristic.

Continue reading Too Much and “Good” or “Bad” Emotional Intelligence / Empathy

Online/Internet Emotional Intelligence (EI)

 

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Summary. Online learning and team work are ever increasing. This poses new challenges on how to predict successful learning, teaching, and performance in general while being wary about problematic Internet/online usage too. Emotions may be seen as less relevant in an online environment, but studies show that Emotional Intelligence (EI) of online instructors and leaders of virtual teams does predict online success. As online participant want to bring in their personality, especially in the case of attachment to a program or project, empathic behavior plays a major role in the online world. “Mind reading” is happening in face-to-face interactions; interestingly, this is possible with others’ texts too, even in the absence of any other visual cues. EI can be developed online, especially when combined with mindfulness instructions, and the Internet Emotional Intelligence Scale (IEIS) provides a potent tool for evaluation.

Continue reading Online/Internet Emotional Intelligence (EI)

Collective Emotional Intelligence (CEI): Not Just the Sum of Individual EI

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Summary. Collaborative learning and teamwork play a significant role in learning and work performance. Collective Emotional Intelligence (CEI) has positive effects on learning and performance dynamics in learning and collaborating teams, which reinforces EI as a contributing factor to successful organizational behavior. Therefore, the potential of CEI should be harnessed by further integrating it into work-relevant learning curriculums.

Team Learning for Team Performance

Despite or because of the controversy related to how Emotional Intelligence (EI) is positively influencing performance, potential beneficiaries such as Learning & Development and HR functions need to be considerate about what measures they take [1]. Organizational requirements shifted increasingly towards increased requirements for team work [2]. Similarly, in educational settings, collaborative learning is considered playing a decisive role in learning performance [3]. EI is a concept that is associating affect, cognition, and socialization [4]. It is possible to develop, e.g., through cooperative learning as several studies found [5] [6]. Team based learning becomes most effective if sufficient female participation in teams is created, which brings in the female tendency for increased emotional awareness and male’s heightened appetite to proactively guide the team [7]. Researchers suggests that emotional intelligence can culturally differ, following the logic that the social environment, as it is the topic of social cognitive theories, determines how for what emotions awareness and regulations are created [8].

Collective Emotional Intelligence (CEI) as a Team Ability

Studies confirm the correlation between the gender ratio and collective intelligence [9]. They define Collective Emotional Intelligence (CEI) as a group’s ability to create a collectively normed management and expression of emotions and emphasize its importance for teamwork quality [9]. It becomes evident that there is an interrelationship between the positive effect that EI can have on aspects of dynamics in learning teams [2], which reinforces EI as a contributing factor to successful organizational behavior [10]. Individual EI without integration into the group context is not a guarantee for teamwork as emotionally intelligent individuals may situationally choose competition over cooperation, depending on their strategic benefit assessment [11].

Reported decreases in empathy over time in medical school were successfully addressed by implementing further team based learning [4]. And another example represents the reported need for and success of EI as an integral part of work-relevant learning curriculums [12]. It will be interesting how evidenced-based research and organizational needs will stimulate each other. 

References

[1] Leimbach, M. P., & Maringka, J. (2010). Invited Reaction: Developing Emotional Intelligence (EI) Abilities through Team-Based Learning. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 21(2), 139-145.

[2] Clarke, N. (2010). Emotional Intelligence and Learning in Teams. Journal Of Workplace Learning, 22(3), 125-145.

[3] Moore, A., & Mamiseishvili, K. (2012). Examining the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Group Cohesion. Journal Of Education For Business, 87(5), 296-302.

[4] Borges, N. J., Kirkham, K., Deardorff, A. S., & Moore, J. A. (2012). Development of emotional intelligence in a team-based learning internal medicine clerkship. Medical Teacher, 34(10), 802-806. doi:10.3109/0142159X.2012.687121

[5] Goreyshi, M. K., kargar, F. R., Noohi, S., & Ajilchi, B. (2013). Effect of Combined Mastery-Cooperative Learning on Emotional Intelligence, Self-esteem and Academic Achievement in Grade Skipping. Procedia – Social And Behavioral Sciences, 84(The 3rd World Conference on Psychology, Counseling and Guidance, WCPCG-2012), 470-474. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.06.586

[6] Marta, E., Diego, M., & Miguel A, M. (2016). El Aprendizaje Cooperativo y las Habilidades Socio-Emocionales: Una Experiencia Docente en la Asignatura Técnicas de Ventas / Cooperative Learning and Socio-Emotional Skills: A Teaching Experience in Sales Techniques Course. Formación Universitaria, (6), 43.

[7] Dunaway, M. M. (2013). IS Learning: The Impact of Gender and Team Emotional Intelligence. Journal Of Information Systems Education, 24(3), 189-202.

[8] Sung, H. Y. (2015). Emotional Intelligence and Sociocognitive Skills in Collaborative Teaching and Learning. New Directions For Teaching And Learning, (143), 61-77.

[9] Curşeu, P. L., Pluut, H., Boroş, S., & Meslec, N. (2015). The magic of collective emotional intelligence in learning groups: No guys needed for the spell!. British Journal Of Psychology (London, England: 1953), 106(2), 217-234. doi:10.1111/bjop.12075

[10] Tofighi, M., Tirgari, B., Fooladvandi, M., Rasouli, F., & Jalali, M. (2015). Relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behavior in critical and emergency nurses in south east of Iran. Ethiopian Journal Of Health Sciences, 25(1), 79-88.

[11] Fernández-Berrocal, P. )., Extremera, N. )., Ruiz-Aranda, D. )., & Lopes, P. ). (2014). When to cooperate and when to compete: Emotional intelligence in interpersonal decision-making. Journal Of Research In Personality, 49(1), 21-24. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2013.12.005

[12] Singh, P., & Dali, C. M. (2013). Need for Emotional Intelligence to Develop Principals’ Social Skills. Africa Education Review, 10(3), 502-519.

Psychological Predictors for Career Success Beyond Dispositional Personality

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Summary. Both trait personality and intelligence aspects contribute to the predictive power of psychological measures related to job performance. The validity of predictors depends on specific context and content. To most effectively operationalize relevant performance assessments, combinations, adaptations, and even new tests should be carefully chosen to best map performance criterion and predicting variables as accurate as possible.  Continue reading Psychological Predictors for Career Success Beyond Dispositional Personality

The Case for Measuring ‘Resilient Type’ Traits in Inuit Youth

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Summary. The Inuit communities in the Alaskan regions of Northern Canada suffer from colonialization issues, such as corrosion of collectivistic values of family relations. Inuit youth’s well-being is depending on their cultural environment. Mental health problems, substance misuse, and high suicide rates are significant concerns. Resilience as a strength based approach to adapt to adversity is sought to be better understood to design culturally sensitive and therefore effective interventions. A newly developed psychometric instrument, based on the Big Five, could help to further optimize the targeting of Inuit youth according to their differences in related individual traits tendencies.

Inuit Cultural Context and Adverse Situations

If it were known what individual differences in personality influence personal coping behavior, interventions could be directed towards those likely to be unable to handle stressful situations effectively (Waaktaar & Torgersen, 2010). Confronted with detrimental effects from colonialization and the western-style culturally insensitive approaches to deal with (Morris & Crooks, 2015), Canada’s Aboriginal Inuit population is suffering from adverse social, cultural, and economic developments (Ferrazzi & Krupa, 2016). Most harm is caused by the corrosion of collectivistic values of family relationships as they continue to define the cultural environment necessary for Inuit’s well-being (Kral, Salusky, Inuksuk, Angutimarik, & Tulugardjuk, 2014). The Inuit youth suicide rate is up to ten times higher than that of Canada overall, what the Inuit ascribe to the destruction of their native culture (Kral et al., 2014). Whereas the direct link between colonialization and suicide rates is disputed, mood disorders and substance misuse (e.g., because of family disruption [Dell et al., 2011]) was more clearly identified as one of the multiple causes for suicide (Chachamovich et al., 2013).

Enculturation is the way a person feels in accord with the spirit and culture of its community (Winterowd, Montgomery, Stumblingbear, Harless, & Hicks, 2008). It provides for the indigenous resiliency factors of spirituality and kinship (Montgomery-Andersen, & Borup, 2012) that are found to be preventive of the increased mental health issues such as low self-esteem and depression in Inuit youth (Snowshoe, Crooks, Tremblay, Craig, & Hinson, 2015). According to Kelly, Fitzgerald, and Dooley (2017), “resilience is a process reflecting positive adaptation in the face of adversity” (p. 1). The Inuit notion of resilience grounds on a wealth of cultural traditions, language, and engagement that have resisted all difficulties (Kirmayer, Dandeneau, Marshall, Phillips, & Williamson, 2011).

Big Five / Five-Factor Model (FFM) of Personality Traits

While family and environment contribute to resiliency too (Kelly et al., 2017), individual differences as predictors of future outcomes are sought to be assessed. A suitably precise psychometric instrument should, at the same time, allow the integration of a broad range of criteria that are potentially important for the use in long-term community development (Morizot, 2014).  Supportive research evidence concentrates on a five-factor model (FFM) (Howell, & Zelenski, 2017) consisting of five mostly independent personality trait dimensions, i.e., extraversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, and openness to experience (McCrea & Costa, 1987). Importantly, both individualist (such as the non-Aboriginal Canadian population) and collectivist (i.e., the Inuit) cultures reveal, albeit with different scores, the Big Five traits (Reese et al., 2014). The Big Five construct could even be linked to neurobiological explanations (Rojas & Widiger, 2014). The psycholexical grouping rationale of the FFM has been confirmed by theories of personality psychology (Strus, Cieciuch, & Rowinski, 2014), e.g., by demonstrating the validity of personality trait scores on isolated real-life outcomes (Woods & Hampson, 2005). The Big Five was found to be able to depict the concept of resiliency as a personality aspect as accurately as specific resiliency measurement tools (Waaktaar & Torgersen, 2010). Lazaridou and Beka (2015) report that a resilient personality is characterized by high scores on all Big Five dimensions, given neuroticism is reverse-coded.

Development of an Enhanced Individual Differences Measure

Short Big Five measures do somewhat redundantly focus imagination and abstract thinking and are not probing for other types of openness-facets such as ‘openness to cultural diversity’ (Morizot, 2014) as it is expected to be especially important also for the Inuit changing cultural and social context. Similarly, the five personality trait dimensions should be added further items that are expected to contribute to increased conceptual breadth (generally a weakness of short-form measures [Morizot, 2014]). For example, resilience is expected to include abilities to respond to (adverse) environment factors (Waaktaar & Torgersen, 2010). Emotion regulation is an expected aspect of Inuit youth resilience too (Shaw, 2016) and can be included in the ‘extraversion’ dimension, together with sensation seeking that is a possible facet indicative of substance abuse risk (Morizot, 2014).

 

References

Chachamovich, E., Haggarty, J., Cargo, M., Hicks, J., Kirmayer, L., & Turecki, G. (2013). A psychological autopsy study of suicide among Inuit in Nunavut: methodological and ethical considerations, feasibility and acceptability. International Journal Of Circumpolar Health, 72

Dell, C. A., Seguin, M., Hopkins, C., Tempier, R., Mehl-Madrona, L., Dell, D., & … Mosier, K. (2011). From Benzos to Berries: Treatment Offered at an Aboriginal Youth Solvent Abuse Treatment Centre Relays the Importance of Culture. Canadian Journal Of Psychiatry, 56(2), 75-83.

Ferrazzi, P., & Krupa, T. (2016). ‘Symptoms of something all around us’: Mental health, Inuit culture, and criminal justice in Arctic communities in Nunavut, Canada. Social Science & Medicine, 165159-167. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.07.033

Howell, G. T., & Zelenski, J. M. (2017). Personality self-concept affects processing of trait adjectives in the self-reference memory paradigm. Journal of Research in Personality, 66, 1-13.

Kelly, Y., Fitzgerald, A., & Dooley, B. (2017). Validation of the Resilience Scale for Adolescents (READ) in Ireland: a multi-group analysis. International Journal Of Methods In Psychiatric Research, 26(2), n/a. doi:10.1002/mpr.1506

Kirmayer, L. J., Dandeneau, S., Marshall, E., Phillips, M. K., & Williamson, K. J. (2011). Rethinking Resilience From Indigenous Perspectives. Canadian Journal Of Psychiatry, 56(2), 84-91.

Kral, M. J., Salusky, I., Inuksuk, P., Angutimarik, L., & Tulugardjuk, N. (2014). Tunngajuq: Stress and resilience among Inuit youth in Nunavut, Canada. Transcultural Psychiatry, 51(5), 673. doi:10.1177/1363461514533001

Lazaridou, A., & Beka, A. (2015). Personality and resilience characteristics of Greek primary school principals. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 43(5), 772-791. doi:10.1177/1741143214535746

McCrea, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (1987). Validation of the five-factor model of personality across instruments and observers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 81–90.

Montgomery-Andersen, R., & Borup, I. (2012). Family support and the child as health promoting agent in the Arctic – “the Inuit way”. Rural And Remote Health, 12(2),

Morizot, J. (2014). Construct Validity of Adolescents’ Self-Reported Big Five Personality Traits: Importance of Conceptual Breadth and Initial Validation of a Short Measure. Assessment, 21(5), 580-606. doi:10.1177/1073191114524015

Morris, M., & Crooks, C. (2015). Structural and Cultural Factors in Suicide Prevention: The Contrast between Mainstream and Inuit Approaches to Understanding and Preventing Suicide. Journal Of Social Work Practice, 29(3), 321. doi:10.1080/02650533.2015.1050655

Reese, E., Chen, Y., McAnally, H. M., Myftari, E., Neha, T., Wang, Q., & Jack, F. (2014). Narratives and traits in personality development among New Zealand Māori, Chinese, and European adolescents. Journal Of Adolescence, 37(5), 727-737. doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2014.02.005

Rojas, S. L., & Widiger, T. A. (2014). Convergent and discriminant validity of the Five Factor Form. Assessment21, 143-157.

Shaw, P. s. (2016). Commentary: Mapping the young, resilient brain -reflections on Burt et al. (2016). Journal Of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 57(12), 1465-1466.

Snowshoe, A., Crooks, C. V., Tremblay, P. F., Craig, W. M., & Hinson, R. E. (2015). Development of a Cultural Connectedness Scale for First Nations youth. Psychological Assessment, 27(1), 249-259. doi:10.1037/a0037867

Strus, W., Cieciuch, J., & Rowinski, T. (2014). The Circumplex of Personality Metatraits: A Synthesizing Model of Personality Based on the Big Five. Review Of General Psychology, 18(4), 273-286.

Waaktaar, T., & Torgersen, S. (2010). How resilient are resilience scales? The Big Five scales outperform resilience scales in predicting adjustment in adolescents. Scandinavian Journal Of Psychology, 51(2), 157-163. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9450.2009.00757.x

Winterowd, C., Montgomery, D., Stumblingbear, G., Harless, D., & Hicks, K. (2008). Development of the American Indian Enculturation Scale to assist counseling practice. American Indian And Alaska Native Mental Health Research, 15(2), 1-14. doi:10.5820/aian.1502.2008.1

Woods, S. A. & Hampson, S. E. (2005). Measuring the Big Five with single items using a bipolar response scale. European Journal of Personality, 19, 373–390.